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Frequently Asked Questions

Welcome to the enyGy FAQ section! Here, we aim to address common queries about our cutting-edge ultracapacitors. As a materials innovation company committed to providing high-quality, energy-dense solutions, we understand the importance of clarity and transparency. Explore below for answers to frequently asked questions about enyGy and our revolutionary ultracapacitor technology.

  • Where can I buy Ultracapacitors from enyGy?
    Click here to purchase ultracapacitors. Please note that selecting "Buy Now" or "Shop Now" will redirect you to our affiliate website, DigiKey is one of our trusted distributor partners, where you can choose the quantity of units and finalize your purchase.
  • What are Ultracapacitors?
    Ultracapacitors, also known as supercapacitors or electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC), are advanced energy storage devices characterized by their high capacitance values. Unlike traditional capacitors, ultracapacitors can store and deliver significantly more energy, making them ideal for applications requiring rapid and reliable bursts of power. They excel in various industries, from automotive and transportation to renewable energy and consumer electronics, offering efficient energy storage solutions with exceptional longevity and performance.
  • Are enyGy Ultracapacitors safe?
    enyGy's enyCell ultracapacitors have demonstrated their superior quality and safety by successfully completing UL810A testing, thus earning recognition as UL-recognized components. This accomplishment underscores enyGy's commitment to adhering to rigorous standards and ensuring the reliability and compliance of its products. By meeting UL requirements, enyGy guarantees that its ultracapacitors meet industry-leading safety standards, providing customers with confidence in the performance and dependability of their energy storage solutions.
  • How is energy stored in Ultracapacitors?
    Energy is stored by means of an electric double layer formed at the surface of a porous electrode through the physical adsorption of ions. The traditional electrode material is activated carbon. In the case of enyGcell ultracapacitors poised for launch at the end of 2024, the electrodes in these cells are made of enyGy's proprietary graphene technology, providing higher energy storage characteristics. When a voltage is applied across the electrodes, ions from the electrolyte solution between the electrodes migrate to the oppositely charged surfaces. This process forms an electric double layer, where positive ions accumulate on the negative electrode and negative ions accumulate on the positive electrode. Overall, the combination of electric double-layer formation allows ultracapacitors to store energy electrostatically, enabling them to deliver rapid bursts of power and exhibit high power density.
  • Can Ultracapacitors handle high current?
    Yes, ultracapacitors are capable of handling high current levels effectively. One of the key advantages of ultracapacitors is their ability to deliver and absorb high levels of current quickly and efficiently. This is due to their low internal resistance and high power density, which allows them to discharge rapidly when needed and recharge rapidly when power is available. As a result, ultracapacitors are well-suited for applications that require rapid bursts of power or frequent cycling, such as hybrid and electric vehicles, renewable energy systems, and industrial machinery. Specifically, the ability of an ultracapacitor to handle high current is closely related to its Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR). Ultracapacitors have low ESR values, enabling them to handle high current because less energy is lost as heat within the device during charging and discharging processes. Lower ESR enables ultracapacitors to discharge rapidly and recharge quickly, making them suitable for applications requiring high-power bursts or frequent cycling.
  • What is the operating voltage of an Ultracapacitor?
    Ultracapacitors offer a flexible operating voltage range, unlike traditional batteries which often require a narrow window. Designers only need to consider the voltage range of the system, which can be broader compared to battery requirements. Ultracapacitors can operate within any voltage below their maximum continuous operating voltage. This range spans from the maximum rated voltage down to 0 volts. To attain higher voltages, multiple cells are arranged in series and operated at or below their total series maximum voltage. Importantly, there is no risk of over-discharging the ultracapacitor, contributing to their reliability and versatility in various applications.
  • What is the operating temperature of an Ultracapacitor?
    Ultracapacitors exhibit exceptional temperature resilience as they function independently of chemical reactions. This enables them to operate across a broad temperature spectrum. At elevated temperatures, they remain operational up to 85°C without the risk of thermal runaway. Conversely, even in extreme cold conditions down to -40°C, ultracapacitors can still deliver power, albeit with slightly increased resistive losses. Notably, enyGy ultracapacitors are designed to operate effectively in a range extending up to 65°C and down to -40°C, ensuring reliable performance across diverse environmental conditions.
  • What is the difference between leakage current and self-discharge?
    Leakage Current: This refers to the current that ultracapacitors draw from a source even after reaching full voltage. This current diminishes over time and is typically measured after the ultracapacitor has been on charge for 72 hours. Self-Discharge: Self-discharge denotes the rate at which voltage decreases when the ultracapacitor is not connected to any circuit. This rate depends on the state of charge at disconnection. An ultracapacitor charged quickly and left idle will discharge more rapidly than one held on charge for an extended period. Additionally, the rate of discharge varies as the voltage decreases. Equation: I = C dv/dt or time = capacitance value * voltage change / current.
  • What is the failure mode of an Ultracapacitor?
    Ultracapacitors diverge from batteries in that they lack a defined end-of-life scenario. End of life (EOL) for ultracapacitors occurs when capacitance and/or Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) degrade beyond the requirements of the application. In the event of failure, ultracapacitors typically experience a premature end of life, manifesting as degradation to a virtual open circuit. Unlike batteries, ultracapacitors do not exhibit short circuiting or other catastrophic failure modes.
  • How to integrate cells in series or parallel?
    Ultracapacitor integration focuses primarily on maintaining the ultracapacitor within its broad operating range of voltage and temperature. Ultracapacitors can be arranged either in series or in parallel. Given the low voltage characteristics of a single ultracapacitor cell, most applications necessitate multiple cells in series to meet the required voltage. As each cell may have slight variations in capacitance and resistance, it's essential to balance or prevent individual cells from exceeding their rated voltage. Passive Balancing: Passive balancing involves maintaining consistent voltage regulation regardless of the ultracapacitor's condition. The most common method of passive balancing utilizes resistors. The principle of resistive balancing entails placing resistors in parallel with the ultracapacitors. Active Balancing: Active voltage balancing is preferable for applications with limited energy sources or high cycling levels. An active circuit typically draws lower current in a steady state and only requires larger currents when the cell voltage is imbalanced. The maximum current varies depending on the product.
  • What are the maintenance requirements for Ultracapacitors?
    Ultracapacitors are inherently maintenance-free devices. They do not suffer from memory effects, are immune to over-discharge, and can be maintained at any voltage within or below their rating. As long as they are operated within their broad ranges of voltage and temperature, no specific maintenance is required.
  • How do I size/calculate my application requirements properly?
    Selecting the appropriate ultracapacitor and determining the optimal quantity depends on the specific application. To ensure proper system sizing, several factors need consideration: Maximum and minimum operating voltage of the application. Average current or power requirements. Peak current or power demands. Operating environment temperature. Required runtime for the application. Desired lifespan of the application. Given that ultracapacitors are typically low-voltage devices, their rated voltage is often lower than the voltage required by the application. Understanding the maximum application voltage (Vmax) is crucial for determining the number of capacitor cells needed to be connected in series. Determining the number of series-connected ultracapacitor cells is based on: Following this, by considering the average current (I) in amperes, the desired run time (dt) in seconds, and the minimum operating voltage (Vmin), one can estimate the system capacitance required for optimal performance. The cumulative system capacitance is determined by the combined capacitance of all ultracapacitors connected in series to achieve Vmax. When capacitors are connected in series, the individual cell capacitance is determined by: To attain the necessary energy when ultracapacitors are connected in parallel, the capacitance is determined by: Please note: Several other factors must be considered for accurately sizing the application with ultracapacitors. These include the internal resistance of the ultracapacitor, crucial for managing sudden voltage drops when current is applied, as well as the ambient operating temperature, which influences both the internal resistance and the lifespan of the ultracapacitor. Additionally, it's essential to factor in the expected lifespan of the application itself. Understanding the performance requirements of the ultracapacitor at the end of the application's life is vital for ensuring the initial sizing of the system is appropriate.
  • How do I calculate life of the Ultracapacitor?
    The lifespan of ultracapacitors is commonly evaluated in calendar years, dependent primarily on two factors: voltage and temperature. Similar to aluminum electrolytic capacitors, the life expectancy of ultracapacitors shares a parallel trend. Notably, the lifespan of ultracapacitors will double for every 10°C decrease in temperature or for every 0.1V decrease in voltage. L1: Load life rating - The duration the supercapacitor typically operates under specified conditions, commonly around 1000 hours at the rated temperature. L2: Expected life at operating condition - The anticipated lifespan of the supercapacitor under its intended usage parameters. Tm: Maximum temperature rating - The highest temperature the supercapacitor can withstand safely. Ta: Ambient temperature - The environmental temperature in which the supercapacitor will operate in the application. Vr: Rated voltage - The voltage level specified by the manufacturer for optimal performance. Va: Applied voltage - The actual voltage applied to the supercapacitor during operation.
  • Do Ultracapacitors encounter any drawbacks when incorporating graphene?
    No, all specifications of ultracapacitors remain consistent, encompassing power density, ESR, and other pertinent metrics. The sole alteration lies in the incorporation of enyGy's proprietary graphene into the manufacturing process, leading to enhancements in energy density.
  • How does the cost of Ultracapacitors incorporating graphene, such as the enyGcell, compare?
    In terms of cost differentiation, all our ultracapacitor manufacturing processes utilize scalable and cost-effective chemical approaches for graphene production. Our sourcing of raw materials from suppliers ensures an economical supply of graphene. Consequently, our products facilitate a reduction in the manufacturing cost of enyGy's proprietary graphene materials, leading to decreased expenses for incorporating this innovation into existing ultracapacitor manufacturing processes. For example, our advanced graphene materials have the impressive capability to upgrade a 60F cell to a 100F cell, with only a marginal increase in manufacturing expenses compared to the overall cost of producing the initial 60F cell. To offer a clearer perspective, enhancing a cell from 60F to 100F elevates its market value with just a 10% additional cost. Yes, you read that correctly: higher market value with only a 10% increased cost.
  • What distinguishes enyGcell from enyCell in terms of technology?
    Our enyCell product embodies cutting-edge ultracapacitor technology, featuring activated carbon electrodes and powered by a 3.0V electrolyte—serving as our versatile mid-range solution. In contrast, our flagship product, enyGcell, shares a similar design but sets itself apart by integrating our proprietary graphene. This enhancement substantially boosts the energy density compared to the enyCell product. As we advance into the future, our dedication to innovation propels ongoing improvements to our graphene formulations, guaranteeing that enyGcell maintains its leading position, continually elevating its energy density over time.
  • How does enyGcell stack up against other Ultracapacitor options on the market?
    Imagine acquiring an ultracapacitor with a remarkable 50% to 100% surge in energy density – the measure of energy stored per unit volume or mass. This is precisely what enyGy offers to the market. With the imminent launch of the enyGy enyGcell product, it is set to revolutionize ultracapacitor technology, emerging as the world's most energy-compact ultracapacitor
  • What graphene does enyGy use and why?
    We utilize post-processed graphite sourced from graphite mines through our trusted partner suppliers. These suppliers are well-versed in our precise requirements for processed graphite to ensure seamless compatibility with our graphene processing and manufacturing facilities. Upon arrival at our warehouse, the meticulous process begins, wherein we harness the intrinsic surface chemistry and structure of graphene. Through ingenious manipulation of individual graphene sheets, followed by orchestrated interlayer interactions during self-assembly, we meticulously engineer the nanostructure of graphene-based electrode films. This meticulous engineering achieves a remarkable balance between porosity and compactness, resulting in an unparalleled energy storage capability seamlessly integrated with exceptional conductivity. Our ultracapacitors boast higher energy density specifications without compromising power density, ESR, and other essential ultracapacitor specifications.
  • What sets enyGy's graphene apart from that used by competitors? How does enyGy differentiate itself in this regard?
    The term "Graphene" has been tossed around indiscriminately for some time, with numerous companies worldwide using it merely as a marketing gimmick. However, we take a different approach. We genuinely harness the power of graphene, and we do so in a cost-effective manner. Our partners have experienced this firsthand, and soon the world will witness the true potential of graphene in enhancing ultracapacitors when we unveil our graphene ultracapacitors, enyGcell, later this year. While there may be other companies utilizing "curved graphene," essentially a carbon-derived carbide material, to achieve higher energy and power density, our technology focuses on optimizing the nanostructure and surface chemistry of graphene, alongside the porous electrode design, to achieve compact energy storage. As a result, the primary advantage of our technology lies in achieving high volumetric energy density cost-effectively.
  • Has the manufacturing method for Ultracapacitors evolved from those of other manufacturers?
    No, and that's a positive aspect! We employ a similar manufacturing process to manufacturers worldwide when it comes to producing ultracapacitors. The difference lies in our integration of graphene into the manufacturing process, resulting in ultracapacitors with significantly enhanced energy density. We operate a separate facility for the production of graphene materials, exclusively managed by enyGy. However, if an existing manufacturer opts to utilize our graphene materials, no alterations to the ultracapacitor manufacturing process are necessary. In other words, no additional equipment or machinery is needed to ensure compatibility with enyGy graphene materials.
  • Can I purchase graphene materials now to enhance my Ultracapacitors?
    Absolutely! By utilizing our graphene materials and adhering to our guidelines, you can produce ultracapacitors with a 50 to 100% increase in energy density. However, it's important to note that this would entail leveraging our intellectual property. Therefore, we would need to engage in detailed discussions with you to understand your specific requirements and explore feasible options for collaboration. Together, we can assess the potential for enhancing your ultracapacitor product line and determine the best course of action moving forward.
  • What sets enyGy apart as the sole entity capable of successfully integrating graphene into Ultracapacitors?
    Over the span of seven years, enyGy has invested significant capital and time into researching and developing electrode films enhanced with graphene for ultracapacitors. This endeavor began after the invention was discovered and patented in early 2010s. The journey to this achievement was a meticulously planned and executed process, showcasing the dedication and expertise of the enyGy team. As we approach the imminent launch of our groundbreaking graphene-enhanced ultracapacitors, enyGcell, the team at enyGy is thrilled about the possibilities ahead.
enyCap (AC EDLC)

EnyGy® develops, manufactures and markets graphene-based electrode films, graphene-based ultracapacitors and graphene materials to improve upon existing ultracapacitors in the market.

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